Reading 28/341, Leviticus 2-5

Today is entirely detailed descriptions of how to do sacrifices. One thing to note is that depending on the reason for the sacrifice, the priest received some part, the person received some part, and God receives some part. Some sacrifices are all God's, i.e. they are burnt up entirely, but in many sacrifices the majority of the animal belonged to the person offering the sacrifice. There is a conflict throughout the law whether a person can ever eat livestock that was not sacrificed, so most sacrifices were simply the way that a person killed an animal in order to eat it, giving the proper parts to God and to the priest.

...Leviticus...

“When anyone brings a grain offering as an offering to the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour, and he shall pour oil on it, and put frankincense on it. He shall bring it to Aaron's sons, the priests, and he shall take his handful of its fine flour, and of its oil, with all its frankincense, and the priest shall burn the memorial of it on the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to the Lord. What is left of the grain offering shall be Aaron's and his sons'. It is a Most Holy thing of the offerings of the Lord made by fire. When you offer a grain offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mixed with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. If your offering is a grain offering of the baking pan, it shall be of unleavened fine flour, mixed with oil. You shall cut it in pieces, and pour oil on it. It is a grain offering. If your offering is a grain offering of the frying pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil. You shall bring the grain offering that is made of these things to the Lord, and it shall be presented to the priest, and he shall bring it to the altar. The priest shall take from the grain offering its memorial, and shall burn it on the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to the Lord. What is left of the grain offering shall be Aaron's and his sons'. It is a thing Most Holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire. No grain offering, which you shall offer to the Lord, shall be made with yeast; for you shall burn no yeast, nor any honey, as an offering made by fire to the Lord. As an offering of firstfruits you shall offer them to the Lord, but they shall not come up for a sweet savor on the altar. Every offering of your grain offering you shall season with salt, nor shall you allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your grain offering. With all your offerings you shall offer salt. If you offer a grain offering of first fruits to the Lord, you shall offer for the grain offering of your first fruits grain in the ear parched with fire, bruised grain of the fresh ear. You shall put oil on it, and lay frankincense on it: it is a grain offering. The priest shall burn as its memorial, part of its bruised grain, and part of its oil, along with all its frankincense: it is an offering made by fire to the Lord.”

“If his offering is a sacrifice of peace offerings; if he offers it from the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the Lord. He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and kill it at the door of the tent of meeting, and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood on the altar round about. He shall offer of the sacrifice of peace offerings an offering made by fire to the Lord; the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat that is on the entrails, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the long lobe of the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away. Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar on top of the burnt offering, which is on the wood that is on the fire: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to the Lord. If his offering for a sacrifice of peace offerings to the Lord is from the flock, male or female, he shall offer it without blemish. If he offers a lamb for his offering, then he shall offer it before the Lord, and he shall lay his hand on the head of his offering, and kill it before the tent of meeting, and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle its blood on the altar round about. He shall offer from the sacrifice of peace offerings an offering made by fire to the Lord; its fat, the entire tail fat, he shall take away close to the backbone, and the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat that is on the entrails, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the long lobe of the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away. The priest shall burn it on the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire to the Lord. If his offering is a goat, then he shall offer it before the Lord: and he shall lay his hand on its head, and kill it before the tent of meeting, and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle its blood on the altar round about. He shall offer from it as his offering, an offering made by fire to the Lord; the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat that is on the entrails, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the long lobe of the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away. The priest shall burn them on the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savor; all the fat is the Lord's. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that you shall eat neither fat nor blood.”

The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "Speak to the children of Israel, saying, 'If anyone sins unintentionally, in any of the things which the Lord has commanded not to be done, and does any of them, if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin which he has sinned a young bull without blemish to the Lord for a sin offering. He shall bring the bull to the door of the tent of meeting before the Lord, and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull, and kill the bull before the Lord. The anointed priest shall take some of the blood of the bull, and bring it to the tent of meeting. The priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the veil of the sanctuary. The priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the Lord, which is in the tent of meeting, and he shall pour out all of rest of the blood of the bull at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting. He shall take all the fat of the bull of the sin offering off of it; the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat that is on the entrails, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the long lobe of the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away, as is taken off of the ox of the sacrifice of peace offerings. The priest shall burn them on the altar of burnt offering. The bull's skin, all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, its entrails, and its dung, all the rest of the bull, he shall carry forth outside the camp to a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire. Where the ashes are poured out it shall be burned.

If the whole congregation of Israel sins, and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done any of the things which the Lord has commanded not to be done and are guilty; when the sin which they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bull for a sin offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting. The elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the Lord, and the bull shall be killed before the Lord. The anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bull to the tent of meeting: and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, before the veil. He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before the Lord, that is in the tent of meeting, and the rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting. All its fat he shall take from it, and burn it on the altar. Thus shall he do with the bull, as he did with the bull of the sin offering, so shall he do with this, and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven. He shall carry forth the bull outside the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bull. It is the sin offering for the assembly.

When a ruler sins, and unwittingly does any of all the things which the Lord his God has commanded not to be done, and is guilty, if his sin, in which he has sinned, is made known to him, he shall bring as his offering a goat, a male without blemish. He shall lay his hand on the head of the goat and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the Lord. It is a sin offering. The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering. He shall pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering. All its fat he shall burn on the altar, like the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings, and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin, and he will be forgiven.

If any of the common people sins unwittingly, in doing any of the things which the Lord has commanded not to be done, and is guilty; if his sin, which he has sinned, is made known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for his sin which he has sinned. He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering, and kill the sin offering in the place of burnt offering. The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. All its fat he shall take away, like the fat is taken away from off of the sacrifice of peace offerings, and the priest shall burn it on the altar for a sweet savor to the Lord, and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven. If he brings a lamb as his offering for a sin offering, he shall bring a female without blemish. He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering, and kill it for a sin offering in the place where they kill the burnt offering. The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. All its fat he shall take away, like the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace offerings, and the priest shall burn them on the altar, on the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin that he has sinned, and he will be forgiven.

If anyone sins, in that he hears the voice of summons to testify, he being a witness, whether he has seen or knows, but he does not report it, then he shall bear his iniquity. If anyone touches any unclean thing, whether it is the carcass of an unclean animal, or the carcass of unclean livestock, or the carcass of unclean creeping things, and it is hidden from him, and he is unclean, then he shall be guilty. If he touches the uncleanness of a human, whatever their uncleanness is with which they are unclean, and it is hidden from him; when he knows of it, then he shall be guilty. If anyone swears rashly with his lips to do evil or to do good, whatever it is that a man might utter rashly with an oath, and it is hidden from him; when he knows of it, then he realizes his guilt in any of these; it shall be, when he realizes his guilt of one of these, he shall confess what he has sinned, and he shall bring his guilt penalty to the Lord for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin offering, and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin. If he cannot afford a lamb, then he shall bring as his guilt penalty for what he has sinned, two turtledoves or two young pigeons, to the Lord; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering. He shall bring them to the priest, who shall first offer the one which is for the sin offering, and wring off its head from its neck, but shall not sever it completely. He shall sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar. It is a sin offering. He shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the ordinance, and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin which he has sinned, and he shall be forgiven. If he cannot afford two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his as offering for what he has sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He shall put no oil on it, nor shall he put any frankincense on it, for it is a sin offering. He shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial portion, and burn it on the altar, on the offerings of the Lord made by fire. It is a sin offering. The priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin that he has sinned in any of these things, and he will be forgiven, and the rest shall be the priest's, as the grain offering.”

The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “If anyone commits a trespass, and sins unwittingly, in the holy things of the Lord; then he shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord, a ram without blemish from the flock, valued according to your estimation in silver by shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt offering. He shall make restitution for what he has done wrong in the holy thing, and shall add a fifth part to it, and give it to the priest, and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering, and he will be forgiven. If anyone sins, and does any of the things which the Lord has commanded not to be done; though he did not know it, then realizes his guilt, he shall bear his iniquity. He shall bring a ram without blemish from of the flock, valued according to your estimation, for a guilt offering, to the priest, and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning the thing in which he sinned and did not know it, and he will be forgiven. It is a guilt offering. He is certainly guilty before the Lord.”

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